Physique Formula Natural BCAA Refereneces

Stoppani, J., et al., Consuming branched-chain amino acid supplement during a resistance training program increases lean mass, muscle strength and fat loss. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2009, 6(Suppl 1):P1, 2009.
Anthony, J. C., Yoshizawa, F., Anthony, T. G., Vary, T. C., Jefferson, L. S., & Kimball, S. R. (2000) Leucine stimulates translation inititation in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats via a rapamycin-sensitive pathway. J. Nutr. 130: 2413-2419.
Crozier, S. J., Kimball, S.R., Emmert, S. W., Anthony, J. C., & Jefferson, L.S. (2005) Oral leucine administration stimulates protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. J. Nutr. 135: 376-382.
Crowe, M. J., et al. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Aug;97(6):664-72.
Bolster, D. R., Crozier, S. J., Kimball, S. R., & Jefferson, L. S. (2002) AMP-activated protein kinase suppresses protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle through down-regulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 23977-23980.
Koopman R, Wagenmakers AJ, Manders RJ, Zorenc AH, Senden JM, Gorselink M, Keizer HA, van Loon LJ. (2005) Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo in male subjects. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 288(4): E645-653.
Coburn, J. W., et al. Effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation during eight weeks of unilateral resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 2006 May;20(2):284-91.
La Bounty, P., et al., The effects of oral BCAAs and leucine supplementation combined with an acute lower-body resistance exercise on mTOR and 4E-BP1 activation in humans: preliminary findings. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5(Suppl 1):P21, 2008.
De Lorenzo, A., et al. Effect of acute and chronic branched-chain amino acids on energy metabolism and muscle performance.Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003 Oct-Dec;16(5-6):291-7.
Blomstrand E.A role for branched-chain amino acids in reducing central fatigue. J Nutr. 2006 Feb;136(2):544S-547S.

Craig SA. Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):539-49.
Atkinson W, et al. Dietary and supplementary betaine: acute effects on plasma betaine and homocysteine concentrations under standard and postmethionine load conditions in healthy male subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):577-85.
Steenge, GR, et al. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women. J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5):1291-5.
Schwab, U., et al. Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Nov;76(5):961-7.
Graybiel A, et al. Use of betaine and glycocyamine... Ann West Med Surg 1951;5:863-75.
Morrison LM. Results of betaine treatment of atherosclerosis. Am J Dig Dis 1952;19:381-4.
Barak AJ, Tuma DJ. Betaine, metabolic by-product or vital methylating agent? Life Sci. 1983 Feb 14;32(7):771-4.
Barak AJ, et al. Betaine effects on hepatic methionine metabolism elicited by short-term ethanol feeding. Alcohol. 1996 Sep-Oct;13(5):483-6.
Barak AJ, et al. Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993 Jun;17(3):552-5.
Junnila M, et al. Reduction of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxic effects by oral administration of betaine in male Han-Wistar rats: a morphometric histological study. Vet Pathol. 2000 May;37(3):231-8.
Junnila M, et al. Betaine reduces hepatic lipidosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1998 Oct;40(5):263-6.
Wettstein M, et al. Betaine as an osmolyte in rat liver: metabolism and cell-to-cell interactions. Hepatology. 1998 Mar;27(3):787-93.
Zapadniuk VI, et al. Corrective effect of trimethylglycine on the nicotinamide coenzyme and adenine nucleotide content of the tissues in experimental atherosclerosis. Farmakol Toksikol. 1986 Jul-Aug;49(4):71-3.
Panteleimonova TN, Zapadniuk VI. Effect of trimethylglycine on lipid metabolism in experimental atherosclerosis in rabbit. Farmakol Toksikol. 1983 Jul-Aug;46(4):83-5.
Zahn A, et al. Effects of methionine and betaine supplementation on growth performance, carcass composition and metabolism. Poult Sci 2006, 47:576-580.
Maresh, CM, et al. The effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 39(5 suppl.): S304, 2007.
Hoffman JR, et al. Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 27;6:7.
Lee EC, et al. Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Jul 19;7:27.

L-Citrulline Malate
Sureda, A., et al. L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Sep;110(2):341-51.
Sanchez-Gonzalez MA., et al. The effects of short term L-citrulline supplementation on wave reflection responses to cold exposure with concurrent isometric exercise. Am J Hypertens. 2013 Apr;26(4):518-26.
El-Bassossy HM, Arginase inhibition alleviates hypertension in the metabolic syndrome. Br J Pharmacol, in press, 2013.
Wagenmakers, A. J., et al. Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and ammonia during exercise: clues from McArdle’s disease. Int J Sports Med. 1990 May;11 Suppl 2:S101-13.
Takeda, K., et al. Effects of citrulline supplementation on fatigue and exercise performance in mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2011;57(3):246-50.
Goubel, F., et al. Citrulline malate limits increase in muscle fatigue induced by bacterial endotoxins. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997 Mar;75(3):205-7.
Callis, A., et al. Activity of citrulline malate on acid-base balance and blood ammonia and amino acid levels. Study in the animal and in man. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991 Jun;41(6):660-3.
Bendahan, D., et al. Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. Br J Sports Med. 2002 Aug;36(4):282-9.
Giannesini, B., et al. Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Sep 30;667(1-3):100-4.
Pérez-Guisado, J. and Jakeman, P. M. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness.


Harris Ripps and Wen Shen Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid Mol Vis. 2012; 18: 2673–2686. Published online Nov 12, 2012.
El Idrissi A1, Boukarrou L, Splavnyk K, et. al, Functional implication of taurine in aging Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;643:199-206.
Zhang M, Izumi I, Kagamimori S, et. al., Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men Amino Acids. 2004 Mar;26(2):203-7. Epub 2003 May 9.
O'Reilly, Steve Touting Taurine Flex. Apr2005, Vol. 23 Issue 2, p164-164
da Silva LA, Tromm CB, Bom KF, Mariano I, Pozzi B, et. al., Effects of taurine supplementation following eccentric exercise in young adults Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Jan;39(1):101-4. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2012-0229. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Stoppani, Jim Nutrition Numbers Flex. Feb2011, Vol. 29 Issue 2, p102-102